Landslides, defined as the movement of a mass of rock, debris or earth down a slope, can occur in a wide variety of geological environment by triggering and predisposing factors. Landslides are presented in various types, some of which are unique or completely different from those in other countries due to geological conditions in China. This paper provides a framework for landslide hazard and risk assessment. It also outlines the process of landslide hazard evaluation, from hazard analysis to identification, concerning about practice in scale dependency.
This paper deals with several aspects of landslide hazard assessment by presenting a focused review of GIS-based landslide hazard assessment: it starts with a framework for GIS-based assessment of landslide hazard; continues with a critical review of the state of the art in using GIS and Digital Elevation Models for mapping and modeling landslide hazards; and concludes with a description of an integrated system for effective landslide hazard assessment and zonation incorporating artificial intelligence and data mining technology in a GIS-based framework of knowledge discovery.
Qualitative and quantitative approaches to risk evaluation are discussed, and some guidelines provided for practice in China. To quantify risk it is indispensable to evaluate the vulnerability of the exposed elements. A framework for evaluating potential losses of the infrastructures is thus discussed, due to the landsliding activity, in monetary terms, both for a specific-site and a regional area at a medium scale (1:10, 000). The methodology presented is illustrated with reference to a sample area in northwest China, for which both the landslide hazard and risk for the human life are analyzed and computed. Results show the powerful quantitative approach for assessing the exposure of human activities to the landslide threat for a best choice of the countermeasures needed to mitigate the risk.