Mineralogy is an Earth Science focused around the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. Specific studies within mineralogy include the processes of mineral origin and formation, classification of minerals, their geographical distribution, as well as their utilization
In general terms, a mineral is an element or chemical compound that is normally crystalline and which has been formed as a result of geological processes’ - E.H. Nickel (1995)
However, this definition means that some minerals, such as those found in cavities in weathered smelter-slags or encrusting building-rubble, are no longer regarded as minerals. The distinction is based on the notion that Man has had too much involvement in their formation because the matrix or host-material is itself man-made. At present such minerals continue to be included within The Mineralogy of Wales database as do a few organic compounds.
Minerals are solid and homogeneous compounds with regular arrangement of involved atoms that have been formed as natural. Up to now have been recognized 3000 minerals according to thermodynamics rules and stability condition. So, knowledge of this group is qualitative and quantitative study of component elements and minerals and structure based on minerals in following methods:
1-Study of minerals physical quality
2-X-ray powder diffraction (difractometer system)
3-X-ray monocrystal diffraction(monocrystal difractometer system)
4-X-ray spectroscopy(x-ray fluorescence system)
Mineralogy knowledge includes study of formation condition, qualities, sourcemineralogy structural changes and their application. So, this group needs basic sciences of minerals physics, minerals chemistry, crystallography, math, chemistry and physics for precise studies by mentioned methods that are accomplished in this group.
Relation of mineralogy to other earth sciences is presented as abstract:
-Mineralogy of valuable minerals
-Study of aerolites
-Sediments of mineral deposits
-Environmental mineralogy of petrology
The natural model has been recognized in industry by knowing process of minerals establishment, therefore, minerals and synthetic materials have much applications in different industries based on minerals structure:
Industries of specific ceramics such as:electric insulator, superconductors, refractories,glass,ceramic,enamel,color,cement,medical,electronic,metallurgy,physics,astronomy,