Multiple environmental changes are palynologically traced in the Pleistocene deposits of Gat’, Strabychovo, Sokirnytsa and Shayan sites (the West-Ukrainian Carpathians), and at Drybka, Mykulychin, Sadzhavka and Lunka sections (the East-Ukrainian Carpathians). The Ukrainian Quaternary stratigraphic framework [Veklitch et al 1993] is applied. Two interglacials are detected in the Early Pleistocene, and six ones are recognized in the Middle Pleistocene. Two Early Glacial interstadials, and the Middle and Late Pleniglacial ones are defined above the Last Interglacial. In the separating units, mainly non-arboreal pollen is indicative for cold environment. Periglacial cryophytes firstly appeared at the second intra-Cromerian stadial.
The first Early Pleistocene interglacial has mesocratic (Quercetum mixtum), telocratic (Carpinus-Fagus), pre- and post-temperate (Pinus) stages. The next interglacial was much wetter (the highest pollen counts of Carpinus, Picea, Abies and the largest diversity of Neogene relics). During the first Martonosha interglacial (with paleomagnetic reversal), role of Carpinus, Neogene relics and broad-leaved became lower. The next Martonosha interglacial was cooler (only few Neogene relics occurred). The first Lubny interglacial (also Cromerian) has Picea+Alnus, Quercetum mixtum and Pinus phases. During the second Lubny interglacial, the early appearance of Carpinus, Fagus and Picea, abundance of Alnus, the final peak of Abies, presence of few Pterocarya indicate warm and wet climate.
The first Zavadivka interglacial (Middle Pleistocene) has Quercetum mixtum and Carpinus phases, separated by Pinus phase. Pterocarya appeared for the last time (correlated with Holsteinian). The second Zavadivka interglacial had the early appearance of Carpinus, Fagus and Picea. The last pre-Saalian interglacial did not have a distinct tree succession. Relatively low share of broad-leaved and Picea, absence of Abies indicate drier and cooler climate than during Zavadivka interglacials. The Eemian has such phases: Pinus+Betula (E1), Pinus+Quercus+Ulmus (E2), Quercetum mixtum (E3), Quercetum mixtum+Corylus+Carpinus (E4), Carpinus+Alnus+Corylus (E5), Picea+Carpinus+Abies (E6a), Pinus+Picea+Betula (E6b). Presence of Fagus (phases E3-E6a) is a local feature of the Eemian in the Carpathians. The Early Glacial interstadials are detected in Pryluky unit, containing Mousterian culture. Both were dominated by Pinus but broad-leaved trees also occurred (during the first interstadial in noticeable numbers). An increase of non-arboreal plants and singular occurrence of broad-leaved trees during the Hengelo interstadial (14C-dated to 38-39,000 BP) demonstrate its continental climate. The Late Pleniglacial interstadial (Dofinivka unit, containing Epigravettian culture) was formed in boreal to arcto-boreal environments (presence of cryophytes).